Friday, August 17, 2012

Oxygen analysers for use in North American hazardous areas

Michell Instruments has attained CCSAUS certification for its XTP601 Oxygen Analyser, making it approved for use in hazardous areas in the US and Canada. The instrument already carries certification from ATEX and IEC Ex, and the addition of CCSAUS broadens its global coverage.

The XTP601 uses thermo-paramagnetic measurement technology to make accurate and stable measurements of oxygen in background gases such as hydrogen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide. It is capable of measuring oxygen ranges from 0-1% up to 0-25%. Typical hazardous applications include monitoring of inerting or blanketing gases in refining, chemical and pharmaceutical industries.

The analyser, which is housed in a tough flame-proof and explosion-proof housing, is available in three versions: a blind transmitter; a unit with status LEDS or a full-display unit. This last version has a touch-screen interface which allows through-the-glass interaction that eliminates the need to remove the analyzer lid (except for service).

All versions are supplied with two 4-20mA outputs, two concentration alarms Modbus RTU over RS485 protocol and application software as standard.

• Michell is represented in Ireland by Instrument Technology.


Straight D-Sub surface-mount connectors

Harting has announced the launch of a range of straight D-Sub surface-mount connectors to complement its established angled product portfolio.

The new connectors feature an optimised design that ensures a high level of dependability and optimal processing characteristics. Their surface-mount capability significantly simplifies PCB assembly and broadens their range of applications.

100% co-planarity is achieved through the use of stamped contacts and a specially designed insulator. This robust solution is capable of withstanding all normal handling processes.

Two variants are available: a connector for standard applications with flat solderable pads to withstand plug-in and withdrawal forces and a variant for more demanding requirements with a solderable assembly pin in addition to the flat pads.

The black insulator, which is designed for improved camera detection, includes two positioning pegs for improved pick & place process reliability. Also included is a large removable cover for a 10 mm vacuum pipette.

All connectors are available with 9 to 37 contacts and are supplied with the option of M3 and 4-40 UNC threaded inserts and fixed female screw locks.

Performance levels 2 and 3 are standard, and PL1 can be delivered upon request.

In addition to 140-piece reels suitable for automatic assembly, these products can be delivered in other special packaging depending on customer requirements.

Wireless telemetry Modbus gateway

Modbus Gateway provides a simple interface for engineers to gather data from wireless instrumentation

Chocolate Line!
Instrumentation specialists Mantracourt have announced the launch of their T24-GW1 Modbus Gateway as a further addition to their acclaimed T24 wireless instrumentation range. The T24-GW1 is a gateway that provides a simple interface for users to gather data from up to 100 acquisition modules in a T24 network, using either the standard Modbus interface RTU protocol or a simple ASCII protocol.

The T24-GW1 is already being used for process control applications in areas such as confectionary manufacturing but is also suitable for a variety of other applications including industrial processing, chemical manufacturing, pharmaceuticals and automotive.

“In many ways, this is a significant addition to our T24 wireless instrumentation range,” said Kelly Voysey, Sales and Marketing Manager at Mantracourt. “The GW1 is enabling engineers to gain the many benefits of wireless instrumentation, whilst being able to interface with existing and new process control systems. The GW1 is already proving very successful in the field.”

"Basically the GW1 is a data translator," said Jonathan Purdue, Technical Sales Engineer at Mantracourt. "The GW1 takes the information from T24 modules and displays the raw number in predefined locations in its registry. Then a Modbus PLC, or Industrial PC, can be programmed to show which locations relate to which module. The PLC can request that information or the GW1 can push the information out to the PLC using ASCII protocol."

The Mantracourt T24 wireless telemetry range is a flexible low power radio system designed to enable the transmission of high accuracy measurement data from load cells, inclinometers, accelerometers, temperature, displacement and pressure sensors. With a combination of transmitter and receiver technologies, engineers are able to remotely monitor instrumentation readings.

New HDMI video & audio capture card

Adlink Technology has released its new Full HD HDMI video and audio capture card, the HDV62A, enabling one-card acquisition of full analog/digital video and digital audio input. Featuring uncompressed full HD up to 1080p at 60 fps,10-bit high-resolution ADC, and HDCP (High-Bandwidth Digital Content Protection) support, the HDV62A delivers serious benefits and reduced TCO (Total cost of ownership) for applications requiring simultaneous capture from both video and audio signals, such as multimedia device testing and medical imaging.

The HDV62A not only delivers uncompressed high-definition video data from DVI or HDMI, but also provides an analog video decoder comprehensively supporting RGB, NTSC/PAL, S-video and YPbPr, with an integrated audio decoder for HDMI and S/PDIF capture. In addition, the HDV62A is compatible with HDCP, securing critical user data during transmission.

“For multimedia devices such as set-top boxes, Blu-ray Disc players, and gaming consoles, that demand consistent quality in manufacturing, the HDV62A provides a single card capture solution, allowing acquisition from raw images and audio sources for analysis and measurement, significantly reducing costs of product line inspection.” said Neil Chen, ADLINK’s Product Manager for Digital Imaging. "For medical imaging systems, the HDV62A provides video acquisition from a wide variety of video sources, including S-Video, CVBS, YPbPr, RGB, and DVI, all of which are widely used in PACS (Picture archiving and communication systems), delivering a superior cost/performance solution".

The HDV62A is also equipped with ADLINK’s ViewCreator Pro® utility, enabling system testing and debugging with no software programming required, and the HDV62A SDK is compatible with Microsoft® DirectShow for reduced time to market. Driver support is provided for Windows 7/Vista/XP, and 3rd party software support accommodates LabVIEW®.

High-performance power supply for single-phase networks

Siemens Industry Automation Division has extended its range of single-phase power supplies: The Sitop smart product family has been expanded with three single-phase 24 V power supplies with rated output voltag s of 2.5 A, 5 A and 10 A as well as two 12 V power supplies with 7 A and 14 A. The output voltage of the new PSU100S power supplies is adjustable over a wide range from 24 to 28 V with the 24 V power supplies and from 12 to 15.5 V with the 12 V models. All devices can supply 1.5 times the rated current for five seconds per minute, to ensure problem-free starting for loads that draw a high current. The 24 V versions even supply 120 percent rated current at ambient temperatures up to 45
degrees Celsius.

The power supplies of the Sitop smart product line are designed for standard requirements in automated machines and plants. As for the currently available Sitop smart power supplies, the new single-phase Sitop PSU100S power supplies also feature a signaling contact for evaluating the operating status "Output voltage OK". With widths of only 32.5 mm (24 V/ 2.5 A), 50 mm (24 V/ 5 A and 12 V/ 7 A) and 70 mm (24 V/ 10 A and 12 V/ 14 A) and no sideways clearance requirements, the power supplies require less space on the mounting rail. These slim power supplies feature automatic range switching for connection to 120 V and 230 V supply systems worldwide. A radio suppression level of Class B and line harmonic limiting also permit use on the public low-voltage grid. Certification for GL (Germanische Lloyd) for shipbuilding and ATEX (Atmosphère Explosive) for hazardous environments ensure that the power supplies can be used universally.

The new Siemens power supplies can be used at ambient temperatures from -10 and +70 degrees Celsius and are characterized by a high degree of efficiency of up to 90 percent, which ensures only minimal heat generation in the control cabinet. For protection against faults in the network or in the output circuit, Sitop add-on modules offer enhanced protection for the 24 V power supplies, for example, through conversion to an uninterruptible DC power supply or for selectivity in 24 V feeders.

New heavy duty linear axis gives accurate positioning

Festo has launched a new cost-effective linear drive which has the highest load capacity for its size in the market. The EGC-HD is a reliable heavy duty axis, which is easy to install and enables machine builders and OEMs to make significant cost savings.

Made from aluminium, EGC-HD has high rigidity and strength to support heavy loads of up to 1300kg and up to 1450Nm torque. The EGC-HD is based on the proven technology of Festo’s EGC linear axis to deliver exceptional performance over a long service life and is ideal for use when heavy loads have to be moved accurately, for example on palletising, transfer lines and pick and place applications.

The ECG-HD linear drive features two guide rails and is available with a toothed belt or a ball screw drive in three widths – 125mm, 160mm and 220mm – giving stroke lengths of up to 5000mm for the toothed belt version and 2400mm for the ball screw option.

Previously, users would have to specify two separate axes, which would need to be carefully aligned, and would require a coupling shaft. However, now users need only use one EGC-HD axis, which provides significant cost savings as it is much quicker to install and there is no need for an additional coupling shaft.

The EGC-HD has been designed with high feed forces and speeds in mind. The belt drive version can move at velocities of up to 5m/s and has an accuracy of 100µm, and the ball screw version can move at velocities of up to 1.5m/s with a high accuracy of 20µm. The ball screw version is available in a choice of pitches from 10mm to 25mm and features an innovative ball screw support system, meaning that the drive can operate reliably at full rotational speed, regardless of the stroke length.

The axis has a flexible motor mounting and is easy to install as machine builders don’t need to specify the position of the motor at ordering stage. The motor can be freely mounted on any of the four corners, and can be changed at any time.

The linear axis can be simply mounted from the back or sides with slot nuts and it has the option for over travel inductive sensors which are flush mounted. Users can simply bolt the axis on to the machine and it is ready to run.

“Market demand was for a more cost-effective solution that would handle higher loads,” says Nigel Dawson, handling & positioning product manager at Festo. “The new EGC-HD has been optimised for high force feeds, so it is capable of accurately handling heavy weights. It delivers excellent performance while being incredibly economical and it is easy to install, design-in and order.”

A simple way to size the axis is using Festo’s free Positioning Drives software. Customers simply download the software from the Festo website, enter the load and speed requirements and the software calculates the size of all products including drives, motors and gearbox in seconds. Axes are custom built and delivered in 7-10 working days.

IR support

NDC Infrared Engineering has announced a new remote support and optimisation capability for its MM710e range of Ethernet-enabled on-line NIR gauges. These gauges are used extensively in the food industry for real-time moisture, fat and protein measurements. This new facility enables NDC customer support engineers to have direct access to an MM710e gauge anywhere in the world via an internet-based connection for software upgrades, performance evaluation and monitoring, calibration and much more.

This new capability, which is also available for NDC’s Infralab e-Series At-Line standalone analyser, provides a highly cost-effective alternative to on-site visits as part of an annual routine maintenance contract, or as part of NDC’s new modular Remote Support Contract initiative. Either way, valuable time is saved by providing NDC customer support engineers with instant access to the instrument for remote diagnostics.

NDC Customer Service Manager, Neil Stephens, said: “We have introduced this new capability in direct response to customer requests. Since the only two consumable parts in the gauge or analyzer, the source lamp and filterwheel motor, are guaranteed for 5 years, it is extremely unlikely that the gauges will experience any hardware failures, so remote access is a perfect maintenance tool”.

“The new facility allows us to make a full back-up of all gauge settings including full product recipe parameters”, he continued. “We can update all software where applicable; check window contamination values; check motor performance and check source lamp performance. By checking the calibration history for each product and inspecting the gauge history log we can identify existing or potential issues and offer advice on how the gauge performance could be optimised. Not only that, after each inspection, we can issue a certificate of conformance, which is particularly important in the food industry”.

The MM710e process gauges and InfraLab At Line analysers are used extensively throughout the food industry for measurements on products as diverse as dairy powders, chocolate, snacks, meat, biscuits, ingredients, coffee, sugar and cereals.

Thursday, August 16, 2012

Improving design process

EPLAN Engineering Center One (EEC One) is a tool that offers EPLAN users the opportunity to greatly improve efficiency in the engineering design process, reducing the cost of project generation, the numbers of errors and the resultant fixes required on the shop floor. EEC One can be utilised across the entire EPLAN Platform whether used for electrical, fluid or process engineering.

EEC One automatically creates EPLAN projects by using standardised partial circuits (macros) and project-specific information. Basic data input therefore results in automatic, quick and easy project generation as EEC One combines project data and schematic macros and prepares the resulting schematic documentation in EPLAN. By using a front end configurator based on everyday office software, EPLAN makes the generation of design so simple that it can be completed by none engineering staff or trainee engineers to allow more senior staff to concentrate on other project areas.

Facilitating factory-wide quality strategy.

tbp electronics has purchased a complete factory-wide Aegis MES system for their facilities in Dirksland and Eersel (NL). tbp is a high-end EMS manufacturer supplying semi-conductor, healthcare, aviation, defence, petrochemical and other markets. In addition to the Aegis MES wide functionality and ease of use, tbp was particularly impressed with Aegis’ obvious experience, expertise and clear advice throughout the initial consultation and sales process. They also set great value on Aegis’ commitment to ensure that the MES solution will be implemented as agreed upon.

tbp’s requirement for MES arose because their existing core MES system no longer covered the growing needs and requirements of the organisation. In choosing Aegis as a replacement, they satisfy an ambition to further increase their overall quality, and to generate reports for Yield, WIP and Defects. As a factory-wide installation, the MES software will interface extensively to tbp’s existing equipment. This includes three Mydata lines with seven pick and place machines, as well as AOI and test systems. Aegis will also integrate with an existing on-site ERP software package.

With its total plant coverage, integration and reporting capabilities, Aegis MES can facilitate tbp’s plan for more advanced quality control. Called ‘Root Cause Analysis’, its objective is to indicate the cause of any fault detected, even if that cause is distant from the point at which it becomes apparent. For example, the software could suggest that a functional testing failure could be attributed to a ‘solder ball’ problem – even though this would have occurred during the solder paste stage much earlier in the manufacturing process. tbp will use the complete visibility that MES brings to the entire manufacturing process, including both operator and equipment activities, to achieve this.

Aegis MES’s presence will extend from inventory through SMT placement and into the Test department, as well as Box Build, Shipment and Repairs. This will allow tbp to complement their ‘Root Cause Analysis’ plans by dynamically controlling product build quality throughout the factory. Any errors or issues will be quickly eliminated as they arise, by stopping a production cell immediately if five such issues occur. Production only resumes once the problem has been found and corrected.

tbp’s confidence in Aegis grew from their track record of proven technology adopted by customers around the world, and the knowledge and commitment Aegis demonstrated to tbp during the sales process. Gerard Elema (MES Project Manager) and Rolf Nagtzaam (Applications Manager) will be configuring the MES software for their existing manufacturing operation, while tbp has future plans for expansion into die placement and wire bonding.

Silent power!

Excelsys Technologies has announced the latest Ultra-Quiet products from their market leading Xgen platform of user configurable power supplies.

The new XBA, XBB and XBC models provide 200W, 400W and 800W power and are UL and CB certified to EN60950 2nd edition. The XWA, XWB and XWC are certified to the latest UL and EN60601-1 3rd edition medical approvals and deliver 200W, 400W and 800W and respectively. With only 38.3dBA of acoustic noise over all load conditions, this new family is the quietest modular, configurable power supply in the market.

Each model comes in a compact 1U package measuring 260mm x 127mm and offers users up to 12 isolated outputs from 1.5VDC to 58.0VDC. All outputs are fully user adjustable and may be combined in series for higher voltages or parallel for higher currents.

Dermot Flynn, Sales Director of Excelsys Technologies, comments “Taking our market-leading ultra-quiet power supplies up to 800 watts of output power gives us a clear lead over our competitors in the modular power supply arena. These new Xgen power supplies are the quietest modular power solutions in the market over all load conditions and will allow our customers to dramatically reduce system noise and vibration. These are critical issues, particularly in the medical, scientific, laboratory and broadcast industries.”

Standard Xgen product features include, ultra high efficiency of 90%, instant custom configuration, individual output control, 5VDC auxiliary, universal 85-264VAC input and a full suite of protection features including OVP, OCP, SCP and OTP.

The Excelsys Xgen Ultra-Quiet power supplies are particularly suitable for applications that are noise and vibration sensitive applications including, medical, laboratory, scientific, audio and broadcast applications.

Customer service connects!

Intelliconnect offers its customers a level of customer service which sets it apart from its competitors making it an ideal partner for all connector supplies.

Gavin Mintern, Sales manager of Intelliconnect Europe, "a common complaint from customers is about non-responsive connector suppliers who take weeks to respond to enquiries, if indeed they respond at all! Our response times are measured in hours, not days or weeks and our deliveries, including custom designs, are shipped in weeks not months.”

Intelliconnect source all of their components and manufacture their extensive range of RF and waterproof connectors and cable assemblies in Britain. Being on the same time zone as their customers and having complete control of their supply chain ensures fast response and delivery times and a high degree of flexibility. Short manufacturing lead-times lower customer’s inventory costs and Intelliconnect offer Kanban and JIT delivery scheduling.

Mintern continues, “We make our processes transparent to customers and if we don’t have a particular connector in stock we have the flexibility to suggest alternative solutions, or design a custom part for a specific application.”

For custom design and value added services including cable assemblies Intelliconnect is renowned for fast turnaround custom design service with drawings available in 24 hours and prototype parts available in 5 weeks. Where a custom part is required and a production order is received pre-production samples are offered free of charge.

Intelliconnect believe that “high quality is designed in not inspected out” and is justly proud of its quality track record of very close to 100% defect free shipments during the past 7 years and on time delivery consistently better than 90% as monitored over the last 5 years.

Intelliconnect manufacture one of the widest ranges of connectors available to designers including; N,C,TNC, 7/16, SMA, SMB, MCX, Triax, 3.5mm, 2.92mm, 2.4mm, 1.85mm millimetre-wave (“mmwave”) products and Triax and Quadrax types. Intelliconnect also offers waterproof versions of all connectors with protection to IP68 when connectors are unmated.

Connector stock may be accessed on the Intelliconnect website via links on the homepage as well as from all product pages. Each product family has an individual stock page and links to data-sheet PDFs

Typical applications for Intelliconnect RF connectors include medical, telecoms, satcoms, military, aerospace, space, general microwave communications, rail traction, oil and gas and marine. Intelliconnect also manufacture the market leading Pisces range of waterproof RF connectors, coaxial adaptors to facilitate inter-series connection and gender change etc. dust-caps and offer value added services including custom cable assemblies.

Packaging awards

The judging for the PPMA Group Industry Awards has now been completed and the finalists announced.  Steve Gee Managing Director Manufacturing Division of Close Brothers Asset Finance Ltd, Lead sponsor of the event said  “we are delighted to be associated with the awards particularly with such strong interest from the industry in terms of the number of entries that have been received, there has been a healthy representation of companies in every category ” 

Gary Wyles Managing Director from Festo added “we welcome the return of the PPMA Awards and are pleased to see that the awards are open to everyone within the industry which gives a greater representation of excellence”. 
The gala dinner event will take place on the first night of the PPMA show on September 25th at the National Motorcycle Museum adjacent to the NEC in Birmingham (GB). Everyone is welcome whether a member of the PPMA or not from Suppliers to end users. The event will be hosted by Comedian Bobby Davro and Skye and BBC presenter Amy Garcia.

The Finalists in Each category are as follows:

Most Innovative Processing or Packaging Machine 
Endoline Machinery
Ishida Europe
Linx Printing
SB Plastics Machinery
Tekpak
T Freemantle

Processing and Packaging Machinery Manufacturer of the Year
Easypack
Makro
Matcon
Pacepacker  Services
PFM Packaging Machinery

Most Innovative Machine Vision Project:
Olmec
RNA Automation
Stemmer Imaging

Most Innovative Automation System:
UPM Conveyors
Summit Systems
Tekpak
T Freemantle

Polymer Equipment Manufacturer of the Year:
Motan-Colortronic
Premier Moulding Machinery
Sumitomo (SHI) Demag
TH Plastics

Exporter of the Year:
Endoline Machinery
Industrial Washing Machines
Lock Inspection Systems
Matcon
Pacepacker Services
Russel-Finex

Exceptional Sales Growth Award:
ABB Robotics
Conveyor Systems (CSL)
Fortress Technology
Matcon
Mettler-Toledo Safeline
Proplast Group
Winkworth Group

Partnership Award:
Endoline Machinery/Sealed Air 
Findel Education/Packsize
Matcon/Lock Inspection Systems
Motan-Colortronic/CRC -Evans
Stemmer Imaging/Marel
TNA Packaging Solutions/ Mettler-Toledo Safeline

Excellence in Customer Service:
Conveyor Systems (CSL)
Easypack
Logopak
Pacepacker Services
Stemmer Imaging


The PPMA Group Industry Awards are organised by The PPMA Group of Associations comprising:
PPMA - Processing and Packaging machinery Association
BARA – British Automation and Robot Association
PMMDA – Polymer Machinery Manufacturers and Distributors Association
UKIVA – UK Industrial Vision Association

New Standards Committee on Intelligent Device Management

The International Society of Automation (ISA) has established a new standards committee, ISA108, Intelligent Device Management. The committee will define standard templates of best practices and work processes for design, development, installation and use of diagnostic and other information provided by intelligent field devices in the process industries.

Intelligent field devices, pervasive in modern process manufacturing, bring the promise of transforming the way information is utilized, related to these devices and the processes they control. For example, devices with impending maintenance problems can be identified earlier with the information provided directly to process automation systems, plant asset management systems or other systems or software as required.

In many cases, the promise remains unrealised, often because users are employing old maintenance work processes with new technology. The new devices and applications are installed, but operators and technicians stick to their traditional approaches to preventive or routine maintenance and do not take advantage of the huge amount of information available to them.

Indeed, as ISA108 Managing Director Ian Verhappen of Yokogawa Canada points out, “with more than 80% of smart instrument data not being used or even connected to an online data collection system, the lost revenues to the process industries are tremendous. Thus, the need is clear for a series of standards on how to integrate this data into control systems and work practices to achieve the benefits of proactive maintenance.”

See also "ISA Charters New Standards Committee on Intelligent Device Management" (Control, 6/9/2012)

ISA108 will hold an initial meeting on 24 September 2012 in Orlando, Florida, USA, in conjunction with ISA Automation Week 2012. However, the bulk of the committee’s work will be conducted electronically. If you are interested in participating in ISA108, please contact Ellen Fussell Policastro of ISA Standards.

Wednesday, August 15, 2012

Solving the automation puzzle!

FDT — Solving the Automation Productivity Puzzle, a user-oriented, vendor-neutral workshop will illustrate how FDT Technology can help effectively put the pieces of the automation productivity puzzle together, based on assets, demands, staffing and technology. 

It will indicate how to reap the benefits, capabilities and value of using the information already available in intelligent measurement and control devices. Real-life application stories will reinforce the “value” discussion highlighting how FDT was a key solution to solving their automation productivity puzzle. A technology demonstration will focus on operation and maintenance benefits including: showcasing how configuration of a device is made easy, illustrating how advanced diagnostics enhances predictive maintenance and troubleshooting — while at the same time increasing productivity, impacting the bottom line, and making life of a plant engineer a little easier.

In addition to the presentations and technology demonstrations, attendees will have the ability to touch the technology first-hand with mini “How To” focused workshops

Smallest dual bent-tube meter

The ROTAMASS LR, the world´s smallest dual bent-tube Coriolis mass flowmeter has been launched by Yokogawa.

The new flowmeter employs a proven dual bent-tube and self-draining design and represents a significant addition to Yokogawa´s ROTAMASS low flow line product family for gas and liquid flow measurement.

Designed to measure both liquids and gases, the effective turndown of the ROTAMASS LR is no less than 2000:1 for liquids and 5000:1 for gases, and the mass flow measurement range spans from 10.5 g/h up to 40 kg/h, achieving a measurement accuracy of ±0.15% of reading for liquids and ±0.5% for gases.

Development background
The Coriolis flowmeter market continues to grow, and a number of market research reports have identified increasing demand for smaller devices with a 2-inch bore diameter or less. There is also rising demand for low flow measurement solutions that achieve high accuracy and stability. The majority of small Coriolis flowmeters on the market currently use single-tube detectors, which have been shown to be less accurate and stable under conditions that include vibration and changes in the ambient or fluid temperature. To meet the market’s need for accurate and stable measurement of fluids at low flow rates, Yokogawa has developed this low flow Coriolis flowmeter based on its proven dual bent-tube detector design.

Product features

1. Dual bent-tube design with perfect balance for robust performance
The ROTAMASS LR employs a dual bent tube that optimally decouples the core measuring element from process vibration that can cause fluctuating zero stability and reduced measurement accuracy. When fluid density changes, a single-tube Coriolis flowmeter can become imbalanced and start to behave like an emitter. It remains balanced because of the equal mass change in both tubes and the absence of interference from the process piping. By design, it is insensitive to fluctuations in the ambient temperature and achieves excellent zero stability under changing process conditions. The two tubes are made from C-22 alloy, which is less susceptible to thermal expansion than conventional stainless steel.
2. Unique inline temperature sensor for reliable measurement
The measurement of tube temperature plays a key role in mass flow and density measurements. Normally it is more difficult to measure temperature with Coriolis flowmeters that have tubes with a smaller surface area. The ROTAMASS LR solves this problem by using an inline temperature sensor, ensuring exact and fast measurements in process temperatures ranging from -50°C to +150°, a unique feature in the low flow Coriolis flowmeter market.
3. Robust stainless steel housing
The ROTAMASS LR sets a new safety standard in the low flow market, with a gas-tight, all-stainless-steel secondary containment that can handle pressures up to 65 bar. The flowmeter can be used in high pressure applications up to 400 bar. A huge variety of welded process connections are available. Unlike most flowmeters on the market today, gaskets are not used, minimising the risk of leaks.
4. Insulation and heating jacket options
For the prevention of fluid component separation and gas condensation, insulation and a heat jacket are available as an option.

Takashi Nishijima, a Director and Senior Vice President, and Head of Yokogawa’s Industrial Automation Platform Business Headquarters, comments: “By measuring and controlling very low flow rates with a high level of precision, Yokogawa is helping its customers to realise the company’s VigilantPlant concept. We believe that this newly developed product gives customers a wider range of choices in multivariable process measurement and allows for greater accuracy and steady measurement in their utilisation."

The major target markets for this product are Chemical research laboratories, chemical plants, pharmaceutical plants. Applications are liquid and gas low flow measurement, high pressure gas pipelines, chemical injection, micro dosing systems, metering pump control, blending, precision coating, vacuum thin-film coating

• Yokogawa products are marketed in Ireland through Irish Power & Process.

Thin film backlighting

On-Site demonstrations of innovative “Thin Film” backlighting technology

IGT Industries is offering to demonstrate their market leading and patented thin-film backlighting technology at customer premises.

Applications for this innovative and customisable illumination system include backlighting of capacitive touch panels for HMI systems including POS, ATM and industrial control panels. Illuminated signage for indicators and instruction panels including “secret until lit” emergency signs for aircraft and POS and other signs used for product branding or similar sales messages.

IGT’s sales and marketing manager, Terry Moss, says that “the new demonstration kits will allow our sales force to clearly demonstrate the benefits of our unique technology, particularly the excellent uniformity of illumination of our back lit MMI/HMI panels. What it also shows is the large number of different markets that this technology can be used in."

The IGT Industries demonstration kit includes various powered-up examples of their innovative, patented, thin-film backlighting technology and includes samples of ‘capacitive touch’ panels with thin-film illumination, illuminated logos, an illuminated membrane panel and a working sample of back lit capacitive switching with ‘slider’ function.

IGT-Industries have been at the forefront of Man Machine Interface technology for more than twenty years and have been responsible for many technological innovations now in common use. These include numerous backlighting techniques, integral RFI screening and most recently the development of capacitive switching systems, both touch screen based and single press control panels with optional back-lighting. IGT products are widely used in rail, marine, aviation, industrial and medical markets.



Power quality gains Silver!

The Fluke® 430 Series II Three-Phase Power Quality Analysers have been named the EC&M 2012 Silver Product of the Year. The Silver winner is chosen by the readers of the US magazine, EC&M, from the Product of the Year category winners, which were announced in March. The Fluke 430 Series II was named a category winner in the portable measurement equipment category.

The EC&M Product of the Year competition was established in 2000 to honour excellence in new product development in the electrical industry. In 2012, EC&M received 129 entries in 31 categories, which were evaluated carefully by a panel of 10 judges representing electrical professionals from the engineering, contracting, and facilities and maintenance industries. From the category winners, EC&M subscribers voted to determine the 2012 Product of the Year Platinum, Gold, and Silver winners.

The Fluke 430 Series II Power Quality Analysers
The Fluke 430 Series II are the first tools to use a patented algorithm to measure energy waste and quantify its cost. They help facilities reduce electrical power consumption and improve the performance and lifespan of electro-mechanical equipment by providing the ROI justification to mitigate power quality distortion. With the new, patented Unified Power function of the 430 Series II, electricians, utility technicians, electrical engineers, field service technicians, and energy consultants can automatically determine how much power is being wasted and calculate exactly what the extra consumption costs with a single handheld tool.

Loop checks standard!

New ISA Standard on Loop Checks Approved by ANSI

An ISA standard, ANSI/ISA-62382-2012 (IEC 62382 Modified), Automation Systems in the Process Industry—Electrical and Instrumentation Loop Check, has been approved by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and is now available.

This standard defines procedures and specifications for loop checks, which comprise the activities between the completion of the loop construction (including installation and point-to-point checks) and the start-up of cold commissioning. It is applicable to the construction of new plants and to expansion/retrofits (i.e. revamping) of E&I (electrical & instrument) installations in existing plants (including PLC, DCS, panel-mounted and field instrumentation).

The standard is a US-modified adoption by the ISA105 standards committee of IEC 62382 Edition 1. While the content is largely the same as IEC 62382, this adoption includes such changes as:

- The addition of both the increasing and decreasing directions to tests in order to identify any hysteresis issues.
- The addition of a category of “standard loops” for completeness.
- The replacement of various input/output check forms with a single loop check form that can be used for all loops, including indicating and control. This significantly reduces the number of check forms needed and at the same time reinforces the “loop” concept in the loop check activity.
- Expanded examples of loop checks. Specific loop checks must be established by the user depending on the specific hardware/software to be verified on the project.


• This adoption follows the adoption by ISA105 and publication in late 2011 of the following: ANSI/ISA-62381-2011 (IEC 62381 Modified), Automation Systems in the Process Industry—Factory Acceptance Test (FAT), Site Acceptance Test (SAT) and Site Integration Test (SIT).

Programme for for suppliers developing fieldbus products

Fieldbus Foundation announces latest participant in FOUNDATION™ development services provider Programme!

The Fieldbus Foundation has announced that Fieldbus Inc. has qualified under its FOUNDATION Development Services Provider (DSP) programme. A solutions provider for fieldbus technology applications, product development, standard and custom function blocks, consulting, training and many other products and services,. Fieldbus Inc. joins other qualified service providers in the program, which helps automation vendors get started with FOUNDATION product development by making it faster and easier to bring fieldbus equipment to market.

The Fieldbus Foundation launched the FOUNDATION DSP program to assist automation equipment suppliers preparing to design and manufacture products employing FOUNDATION fieldbus technology. The DSP program is intended to provide access to qualified development services providers with the know-how to make fieldbus solutions a reality. Qualified DSP participants have been evaluated to ensure they have the tools, training and experience necessary to support a wide range of FOUNDATION fieldbus development projects. Services that can be qualified in the FOUNDATION DSP program include H1 and High Speed Ethernet (HSE) fieldbus device development services, as well as host system services.

Fieldbus Foundation Manager-Fieldbus Products, Stephen Mitschke, commented, "The FOUNDATION fieldbus technology market continues to grow, and Fieldbus Foundation members look to participate in it. Sometimes, organizations can be intimidated by fieldbus device development when they are faced with little experience or knowledge of digital bus technology. Add in limited resources and they may prefer to outsource a portion of the development process. The FOUNDATION DSP solution can help by streamlining product R&D and ensuring a strong ROI."

Tom Boyd, vice president, engineering, Fieldbus Inc., said, "As a recognized expert in field communication technologies for the process automation industry, a key participant in the development of fieldbus product solutions and an active member of the Fieldbus Foundation, Fieldbus Inc. sought the DSP qualification to continue our support of the technology and the manufacturers wanting to use it. The Development Services Provider program is an excellent way to expand our role as a high-quality FOUNDATION technology provider."

Tuesday, August 14, 2012

Donation aids automation skills


Latest automation and control technology for ASET International Oil and Gas Training Academy

Emerson Process Management has donated automation technology worth over £650,000 (€830,000) to the newly opened ASET International Oil and Gas Training Academy in Aberdeen (GB), helping to train the next generation of operators in the oil and gas industry. Emerson’s equipment is installed on a unique working on-shore platform, which will provide trainee technicians with hands-on experience, whilst in a safe environment.

“We have recognised the resource challenges faced by our industry and are committed to supporting the needs of the oil and gas industry. We appreciate the importance of properly equipping people for the future and the value facilities like ASET can provide,” said Donald Angus, Emerson’s newly appointed European Sales Director for Upstream Oil & Gas, who is based in Aberdeen. “Emerson’s automation, control and safety systems are the technology of choice for this important industry and we are delighted to have the opportunity to contribute to this world class facility.”

Chief Executive and Executive Director, Atholl Menzies, heads the highly proactive ASET team who have researched, developed and marketed a wide range of training courses and programmes for electrical, mechanical, instrumentation and process technicians from oil-producing countries worldwide.

He said, “It is vital that our facilities replicate industry standards to allow us to continue to underpin the training needs of the North Sea industry, and fulfil global demand for specialist training.  I thank Emerson for their generous donation which will benefit oil and gas training personnel for many years to come.”

Emerson has supplied its DeltaV™ digital automation system and DeltaV SIS™ process safety system for the on-shore training platform. This latest version of DeltaV features the new S-series platform with “I/O on Demand” which makes it easy for students to configure the I/O for training or temporary installations.

Field devices include Rosemount® transmitters and flowmeters, Micro Motion® flow and density meters, and Fisher® GX valves with FIELDVUE™ digital valve controllers. A Daniel™ metering skid and flow computer is used for fiscal measurement. Emerson’s AMS Suite predictive maintenance software provides students with access to configuration and diagnostic data, and the latest Smart Wireless technology provides access to data from field devices, without the need for wires.

Emerson has also supplied software packages that make it easier for students to develop their skills including DeltaV InSight and DeltaV Simulate. Emerson’s Guardian Support provides access to performance data and technical support.

By retaining existing legacy equipment such as pneumatic controllers, and augmenting these with the very latest instrumentation and control technologies, including FOUNDATION fieldbus communication and wireless networks, the training rig provides a realistic experience reflecting the mixture of old and new plant and equipment currently operating in the field.

Emerson’s involvement in the ASET project is part of an industry-wide initiative to help operators in the oil and gas industry meet the challenges that resource limitations are bringing to the industry. By supporting world class training facilities, Emerson will help increase the pool of skilled operators required by the industry.

Air gauges!

A new book 'Air Gauges: Static and Dynamic Characteristics' has been published by IFSA Publishing.

This book presents results of the researches and theoretical investigations on the air gauges performed mostly in the Division of Metrology and Measurement Systems, Poznan University of Technology, (PL): Six governmental projects were performed successfully by the research team, with twenty six patents gained. A further five patent applications were initiated, and four industrial implementations of innovative devices were made. 

Tens of the diploma works and two doctoral theses were prepared, with more than hundred publications. Some of the projects involved international cooperation, thanks to the series of CEEPUS programs.

Cement in India

An order worth $18 million in India to design, engineer and supply integrated automation and modern electrification systems for Century Cement’s Manikgarh Cement plant in central India has been finalised with ABB.

Manikgarh Cement is located in the State of Maharastra, in central India, and provides high quality cement products for building construction, road and bridge infrastructure and other commercial uses. ABB’s delivery is part of a two line expansion and plant modernization project that will add production capacity of 2.8 million tons of cement per year, more than doubling its current production. The project also includes a 60 MW thermal power plant onsite.

ABB will provide state-of-the-art manufacturing technology to expand production capacity and maintain high product quality while providing a reliable on-site power supply that will improve energy efficiency.

“Our proven experience in executing large and complex projects, minerals and cement industry expertise and leading automation and power technologies helped us to secure this important order,” said Veli-Matti Reinikkala, head of ABB’s Process Automation division. “This modernization and expansion project will help the customer meet increasing the local demand for its product, while improving the overall efficiency of its production process, and stability of its electricity supply.”

ABB will deliver integrated power and automation systems using a plant-wide 800xA automation system to control, connect, and optimize the performance of all processes and systems. The scope of supply includes medium-voltage switchgear, distribution transformers and other electrical equipment and power systems, intelligent low-voltage motor control centers, variable speed drives, instrumentation, and collaborative production management systems. ABB will also provide design, engineering, project commissioning, and other site services.

Static grounding reels

A range of ATEX certified retractable static grounding reels that prevent the discharge of incendive electrostatic sparks within combustible flammable and dust atmospheres has been released by Newson Gale.

Located within a robust and easy to install weatherproof powder coated steel housing, the R-Series of reels incorporate a 1/8 in. (3.2 mm) thick galvanized grounding cable that is protected by Newson Gale’s custom formulated Cen-StatTM coating which is a yellow, high-visibility, anti-static coating resistant to normal levels of industrial wear and chemical attack.
Depending on the distance between the mounting position of the reel and the equipment to be grounded, the reels can be supplied with cable lengths of 20 ft., 30 ft. and 50 ft. (6.1 mtr., 9.2 mtr. and 15.2 mtr. respectively).

All R-Series reels incorporate a ratchet locking mechanism that enables the operator to pay out the required length of cable, and then lock it into position prior to applying the clamp to the equipment at risk of accumulating hazardous levels of electrostatic charge.
Retraction of the cable is achieved with an internally mounted coiled flat steel spring that is “back wound” to ensure cable retraction is quick, reliable and repeatable. Back winding is a production technique that enhances spring stiffness resulting in a more durable and reliable level of cable retraction performance.

All R-series reels are fitted with FM & ATEX approved X90 or X45 static grounding clamps that have been subjected to rigorous mechanical and electrical testing ensuring they are suitable for grounding equipment located in potentially combustible atmospheres. The all stainless steel construction of the X90 and X45 enhances their durability in industrial chemical environments and minimises life-cycle purchasing costs in comparison with lower quality static grounding clamps and cable reels.
Newson Gale can also supply reels fitted with 75 ft. (22 mtr.) and 100 ft. (30 mtr.) of single pole cable.

Low running costs for TOC

Improvements in combustion technology have further reduced day-to-day running costs for the multi N/C® TOC analyzer from Analytik Jena. This high performance analytical instrument combines low-maintenance technologies for sample digestion with an environment-friendly low consumption of consumables such as gas and power, as well as robust engineering and a long service life.

A re-designed, smaller combustion tube results in reduced consumption of the catalyst filling, leading to exceptionally long combustion tube lifetimes. High combustion temperatures up to 950°C provide quick and reliable digestion of even the most stable compounds and for the most challenging applications.

With the patented VITA® flow control system both automatically controlling gas consumption and providing long-term instrument calibration, ongoing maintenance requirements costs are minimised, meaning more time can be spent on carrying out analyses. The corrosion-proof Focus Radiation NDIR detector not only ensures reliable results and but also provides high stability throughout the lifetime of the instrument.

"No limits, no wires!"

Honeywell has released the new Limitless™ Wireless Operator Interface, WOI Series, which expands Honeywell’s Limitless™ wireless switch and receiver portfolio by providing a packaged pushbutton controller for manufacturers and OEMs. The WOI Series adds a human interface device to the product-driven interfaces of the Limitless™ portfolio. With both momentary and maintained contact options, the Limitless™ Series now offers wireless control from both person and position.

This series is a controller designed to wirelessly turn on and off equipment (pumps, motors, drives, conveyors, and other industrial equipment), open or close gates/doors, or provide notification to remote locations. The WOI Series can be used in rugged industrial environments to notify appropriate departments when there are quality, machine, material out-of-stock, or other manufacturing issues.

“The WOI Series provides a control option for users looking to avoid the wiring costs, maintenance issues, hazards, time and engineering that comes with a ‘wired’ push button,” said Joseph Citrano, senior global product marketing manager, Sensing and Control. “This new device expands Honeywell’s Limitless™ wireless portfolio that includes monitors, din-rail receivers, global limit switches, and heavy-duty limit switches.”

Designed for flexibility, the user can choose and install a desired operator (22 mm rotary switch, key switch, key) or utilise one of Honeywell’s pushbuttons. It communicates through Limitless™ receivers that provide PLC inputs or relay outputs connected directly to equipment to turn on LEDs or start/stop industrial equipment.

The Limitless™ wireless network is an easy and cost-effective solution for those looking for a reliable wireless solution. It includes the WDRR Din-rail receiver, WPMM monitor, WLS heavy-duty limit switch, and WGLA global limit switch. The entire Limitless™ solution utilizes the global, license-free RF wireless 802.15.4 WPAN protocol that provides up to a 305 m [1000 ft] line-of-sight communication range, and prolongs battery life with advanced power management technology.

The Limitless™ WOI Series potentially could be used in industrial applications such as CNC action, conveyors, door and gate action, lifts, material handling, motor drives, presses, pumps, quality control buttons, specialty machines, stop/start machinery, stop/start production, and valve action. Potential transportation applications include agricultural equipment and movable machinery.

Power Monitor with Ethernet and RCM - "Awesome!"

Janitza is expanding its measurement device range UMG 96 rapidly and "proves once again its innovative strength" when dealing with the issue of energy management and energy measurement technology.

Awesome
David Gilligan, their Director in Ireland & Britain is enthusiastic! "Product has been released, mass production is running, delivery time is app. 3 weeks as initial demand is high, but delivery time will decrease after about 1 month." 
He has a one word description on market response "Awesome!"
Thanks to their new universal measuring device, the UMG 96RM-E, there is an power analyser on the market for the first time which offers 6 current inputs (4 inputs at 1 A or 5 A and 2 analogue inputs 0 to 30 mA), where the two analogue inputs can be used for differential current measurement. Simple detection of the differential current and the current on the CGP (central grounding point) is guaranteed with this. As an alternative, the analogue inputs can be used for temperature measurement, for example.

By continuously monitoring differential currents (residual current monitor, RCM), of an electrical system a digital output can be set if a threshold value is exceeded. The system operator can therefore react promptly before a protective device operates. This is especially important in systems where it is important to guarantee high availability, in data centres for example.

The UMG 96RM-E is designed to measure and calculate electrical parameters such as voltage, current, power, 1 to 40th harmonics of power and voltage, distortion factors (THD) of power and voltage and so on. Records of load profiles for energy management systems (e.g. in accordance with ISO 50001) as well as measurement of power consumption for cost centre analyses are an integral part. The continuous sampling at 21.33 kHz (50 Hz) or 25.6 kHz (60 Hz) provides the measurements at high resolution levels and also offers an effective tool for troubleshooting and for monitoring power quality in the energy management area. Reliable and quick data transfer and an easy integration into the network is achieved thanks to the Ethernet connection as well as communication via Modbus/RS485. The UMG 96RM-E can be programmed in several ways. The options here are the programming and analysis software, GridVis, the device's own home page or the Modbus protocol. Measurement data are available to be called up via various channels. The large 256 MB of memory stores the data reliably over a long period of time.

The power analyser UMG 96RM-E was designed for use in the areas of building installations, main and sub distribution boards (MDB), data centres, machine level as well as electrical bus distribution systems. It proves to be extremely capable in these areas.

Monday, August 13, 2012

EFT Testing

New 3-phase burst pulse CDN for EFT testing is ideal for high current, high power testing of large machines, appliances and smart grid applications

Teseq now offers a 200 A 3-phase burst pulse coupling/decoupling network (CDN) for electrical fast transient (EFT) and burst testing. The new CDN 3083-B200 easily handles high inrush currents and pulse-shaped peak currents, making it ideal for testing high current and high power equipment in large machines, appliances and smart grid applications.

This new CDN injects fast burst pulses, up to 8 kV (5/50 ns – 50 Ω), into the supply lines of the equipment under test (EUT). It is designed to be used with an EUT supply up to 690 VAC, either line-to-line or line-to-ground, or up to 1,000 VDC, line-to-line or line-to-ground.

Compliant with IEC 61000-4-4, Teseq’s CDN 3083-B200 is compatible with all brands of burst generators. The new system is compact, lightweight and easy to handle. It is especially convenient for off-site testing as well as allowing for more set-up options in standard compliance applications, where the distance between the CDN and EUT is short and the use of combined CDNs cannot meet the requirements set by testing standards.

To prevent damage to internal components, the CDN 3083-B200 features a large overstress capability and a built-in thermometer that monitors temperature to avoid overload.

Although designed for continuous performance up to 200 A per phase, the CDN 3083-B200 can withstand considerably higher currents for shorter durations.

The CDN 3083-B200 features screw terminals rated for 200 A, a maximum burst voltage of 8,000 V and earth terminal grounding.

Applications VP appointed

Excelsys Technologies has appointed Kevin Parmenter as Vice President Applications Engineering, USA. He comes from Exar Corporation where he was the Director of Advanced Technical Marketing for digital power products.

Kevin Parmenter
"Excelsys is committed to excellence in applications engineering and customer support and is dedicating the necessary resources to provide support second to none” states Gary Duffy, Excelsys CEO. "Kevin’s strong strategic marketing background and leadership skills, complemented by his knowledge of power electronics applications and markets, will help Excelsys win in this space. He has proven track record of success in this market. His understanding of the critical issues facing our customers and markets makes him the ideal choice to lead our applications engineering in USA”.

With over 25 years of experience in the electronics and semiconductor industry, Kevin has held roles with Freescale Semiconductor, Fairchild Semiconductor, ON Semiconductor and Motorola Semiconductor Products Sector. Kevin has also had extensive experience as a design engineer in the medical electronics and military electronics field.

Kevin has served as the past president and served on the board of directors of PSMA (Power Sources Manufacturers Association),  and was the General Chair of APEC 2009 (IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference). Kevin has a BSEE from Purdue University, Indianapolis and BS in Business Administration from Colorado Technical University. He is a long time member of the IEEE in addition to holding both Amateur Extra class FCC license, and an FCC Commercial Radiotelephone License.

Kevin has published many articles, been a guest author in industry publications written applications notes and white papers and has chaired sessions at IEEE and other industry conferences as a subject matter expert.

Greenhouse climate!

CO2 monitors used in leading greenhouse climate control system

With accurate and reliable carbon dioxide monitoring being such an important part of horticultural climate control, Edinburgh Sensors's Guardian Plus range of carbon dioxide monitors has been integrated into Priva’s greenhouse climate management system. Priva is a world leader in the development and supply of sustainable technologies for the control of indoor environments for horticulture and buildings. The monitors provide continuous sampling, measurement and display of CO2 concentration over the range 0-0.3% by volume.

The Guardian Plus forms part of Priva’s climate sensing capabilities, specially developed for the horticulture sector and which also include temperature and relative humidity measurement. Carbon dioxide is measured using the well-established infrared absorption method, and the Guardian Plus features proprietary dual wavelength non-dispersive infrared sensor technology with built-in temperature correction. This ensures reliable and accurate carbon dioxide measurement together with long term stability.

The unit’s integral pumping system allows the greenhouse atmosphere to be continuously sampled from multiple locations up to 30 metres from the monitor. CO2 data can be seamlessly integrated into a process computer such as the Priva Connext for intelligent process control.

The Guardian Series of CO2 monitors have been used extensively in both commercial and research horticulture applications. They feature a built in display and user-adjustable set points with audible and visible alarms complemented by volt-free relay contacts, as well as a variety of user-selectable signal outputs for connection to external indication, control or data logging devices. With a choice of measurement ranges, the units are equally at home as stand-alone monitors or integrated into a sophisticated climate control system such as that offered by Priva.

With Priva headquartered in The Netherlands, the Guardian Plus units are supplied via Edinburgh Sensors’ local distributor Carltech BV. Edinburgh Sensors’ Sales Manager, Julie McCormick, said: “Carltech BV specialise in instruments for gas analyses and in sample conditioning systems and we are delighted that they have secured this major order. They are an important part of our expert network of distributors who generate sales for our products around the world”.

The perfect enclosure solution!

The System Approach to the perfect enclosure solution
Rittal’s system concept provides an intelligent modular infrastructure from a single source. Enclosure technology, power distribution, system climate control and electronics, together with engineering tools that have been purposely designed for efficient planning processes, are pivotal to this concept.

Based on the Rittal TS 8 enclosure with its compre-hensive range of accessories, allows numerous advantages which include flexibility, quick and simple assembly, minimal warehousing, fast availability and high quality.

Rittal go beyond simple mechanical solutions and provide coordinated power supply solutions which include the UPS system PMC 40, the type-tested switchgear system Ri4Power and energy-efficient climate control technology, such as the latest cooling unit series, Cool Efficiency.
In addition software solutions, such as Rittal’s Therm facilitates the energy-efficient dimensioning of cooling equipment technology.

By encompassing every aspect from mechanical and electrical engineering to automation, Rittal is linking more and more of its individual engineering tools together to create complete solutions with EPLAN Engineering tools and the EPLAN Engineering Centre. This allows a wide variety of engineering data to be used throughout all phases of product and plant design, with the many advantages of a consistent data concept, shorter throughput times and reduced costs.

Flexibility for board connectors

The Harting range of M12 circuit board connectors are now available in a range of custom bodies, offering new flexibility for integration into industrial housings in the automation environment.

The design of these connectors makes it easy for housing/flange sockets to be separated from the insulating bodies of the connectors: something that is often required in automation applications as the housing/flange sockets are often integrated directly into the housing. A further benefit of this arrangement is that all models are the same height, making the assembly process easier.

The custom bodies are available for all Harting M12 circuit-board connectors, and therefore for all coding arrangements, whether female or male. This means that all straight and vertical models required for the circuit board can be supplied from the same source.